Bibliography

Simon Green – PHD Proposal

Talking about Practice: photography students, photographic culture and professional identities (1997)

The most significant literature that I have identified is from 2016 or earlier (Horner, 2016; Rand et al, 2015; Borge, 2014 ) and although of use, are outdated, partly in educational terms, but particularly in terms of the technological aspects of photography.

Teaching Photography (Rand et al, 2015) is a comprehensive piece of literature and works as an excellent starting place for the project. It explores in broad terms an approach to teaching photography from the philosophical aspects to the use of taxonomies in the design of curricula. However, there are elements that are outdated in teaching and photographic terms, for example the use of learning styles, which have been widely criticised (DfE, 2019 p20) and the technological aspects that have changed in the time since the book was published, both in photography and in teaching, such as the use of virtual learning environments.

I found that the book veered too far from the photographic and into more generalised teaching methods. In narrower terms however, Rand stresses the importance of subject specific knowledge. He identifies the difficulty in maintaining the “flow of knowledge” (p36) and that students ask questions to “clarify, impress, quarrel” (ibid) and without that subject knowledge it is difficult to to respond to those questions if teachers are only “two weeks ahead of the students” (p37).

Ansel Adams An Autobiography (1996) describes Adams experience of developing and delivering photography curricula. Adams reference to teaching is unfortunately a single chapter in the book, however it does discuss the importance of fundamental skills such as composition and exposure and his approaches to making photography courses an “a short-term, intense experience” (Adams, 1996, p268) and the importance of students “taking command of the medium”. He also describes how other artists at the school “arose in wrath and protest; photography is not an art, they claimed, and had no place in an art school” (Adams, 1996, p269). The idea that photography is not an art is even more prevalent today in the digital age, where everyone is a photographer.

This book is important, because many of the skills and techniques that are now the basis of modern photography were developed by Adams and his contemporaries. Minor White one of those contemporaries who taught alongside Adams at the California School of Fine Art, documented Adams approach (White, 1956). He identifies how the photography courses were “as flexible as possible” giving students the experience of a “practicing photographer” (ibid). Adams encouraged students to work by themselves until they reached their own ceiling and only then approached the instructor to have the Ceiling raised (White, 1956, p151-152).

The most recent academic paper that I have been able to access, specific to teaching photography is by the University of Gloucestershire’s Sharon Harper, written in 2016. The paper discusses how photography theory and research has “not kept pace in scale or breadth” with professional specialisations and how, as described earlier, many of the texts used as the “cornerstone” of photography teaching have not changed in decades (Harper, 2016).

Prolific writer on the philosophy of photography, Daniel Rubinsteins’s 2009 article Towards Photographic Education argues that photography education is attempting to “cling to the historical moment of photography” (Rubinstein, 2009, p135) and that it “fails to address contemporary conditions…because it perceives the digital turn in technological terms” (ibid).

The article discusses how Ansel Adams approach to teaching photography may not be appropriate in the digital age and how photography education needs to “become interdisciplinary” as Dimitrios Stamovlasis had described at the Interdisciplinary Theme for Science, Technology and Art Symposium in 2001 (Stamovlasis, 2001). In 2009 Rubeinstein was declaring that “the age of the still image is over” (Rubinstein, 2009, p140) and that “the notion of camera is rapidly becoming a thing of the past”, I would suggest over a decade later the still image and the camera are not dead yet and in my own

Bibliography

Adams, A. (1996) An Autobiography New York: Time Warner Berger, J. (1972) Ways of Seeing London: Penguin

Ansel Adams An Autobiography (1996) describes Adams experience of developing and delivering photography curricula. Adams reference to teaching is unfortunately a single chapter in the book, however it does discuss the importance of fundamental skills such as composition and exposure and his approaches to making photography courses an “a short-term, intense experience” (Adams, 1996, p268) and the importance of students “taking command of the medium”. He also describes how other artists at the school “arose in wrath and protest; photography is not an art, they claimed, and had no place in an art school” (Adams, 1996, p269). The idea that photography is not an art is even more prevalent today in the digital age, where everyone is a photographer.

This book is important, because many of the skills and techniques that are now the basis of modern photography were developed by Adams and his contemporaries. Minor White one of those contemporaries who taught alongside Adams at the California School of Fine Art, documented Adams approach (White, 1956). He identifies how the photography courses were “as flexible as possible” giving students the experience of a “practicing photographer” (ibid). Adams encouraged students to work by themselves until they reached their own ceiling and only then approached the instructor to have the Ceiling raised (White, 1956, p151-152).

Bogre, M. (2014) Photography 4.0: A Teaching Guide for the 21st Century: Educators Share Thoughts and Assignments New York: Routledge

Chrsitodoulou, D. (2020) Teachers vs Tech?: The case for an ed tech revolution Oxford: OUP

Department for Education (2019) ITT Core Content Framework. Available at:https:// assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/ attachment_data/file/974307/ITT_core_content_framework_.pdf (Accessed 12 April 2022)

Edge, S. (2009) ‘Photography, Higher Education and the Skills Agenda’ Photographies, 2:2, 203-214. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/17540760903116663 (Accessed 21 February 2022)

Francisco, J. (2007) ‘Teaching Photography as Art’ American Art Vol. 21, No.3 Chicago: University of Chicago Press

Gregson, M. Duncan, S. (2020) Reflective Teaching in further, adult and vocational education: 5th Edition London: Bloomsbury

Grove-White, A. (2003) ‘Theory and Practice in Photography: Students’ Understandings and Approaches to Learning’ Active Learning in Higher Education. Available at:https:// journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1469787403004001005 (Accessed: 18 March 2022)

Harper, S.P., (2015) ‘Photography Theory Moving Forward’ MeCCSA 2015: Generations, 7-9 January 2015, Northumbria University. (Unpublished)

Harper, S.P., (2016) ‘The World’s Most Amazing 100% Awesome Photography Theory’. Photographies, 9 (3). pp. 327- 348. Available at: http://www.tandfonline.com/ 10.1080/17540763.2016.1202133 (Accessed 18 February 2022)

The most recent academic paper that I have been able to access, specific to teaching photography is by the University of Gloucestershire’s Sharon Harper, written in 2016. The paper discusses how photography theory and research has “not kept pace in scale or breadth” with professional specialisations and how, as described earlier, many of the texts used as the “cornerstone” of photography teaching have not changed in decades

He, Y. (2016) Photography in the British Classroom Bejing: China Nationality Photography Art Publishing House

Hill, P. (2011) ‘How British Photography Found Its Voice’ Redeye, 1st November. Available at: https://www.redeye.org.uk/opinion/how-british-photography-found-its- voice (Accessed: 14 February 2022).

Horner, G. (2016) The Photography Teacher’s Handbook: Practical Methods for Engaging Students in the Flipped Learning Classroom Abingdon: Focal Press

Hyland, T. (2014) Reconstructing Vocational Education and Training for the 21st Century: Mindfulness, Craft, and Values. Available at: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/ 10.1177/2158244013520610 (Accessed: 14 February 2022)

Hyland, T. (2107) ‘Craft Working and the “Hard Problem” of Vocational Education and Training’ Open Journal of Social Sciences 5, Available at: https://doi.org/10.4236/ jss.2017.59021 (Accessed: 14 Feb 2022)

Langford, M., Fox, A., Sawn Smith, R. (2015) Langford’s Basic Photography London: Focal Press

Lucas, B., Hanson, J. (2021) Reimagining Practical Learning in Secondary Schools: A Review of the Evidence London: Academy of Engineering

Moschovi, A. (2021) A Gust of Photo-Philia: Photography in the Art Museum Leuven: Leuven University Press

Newbury, D. (1997) ‘Talking about Practice: photography students, photographic culture and professional identitities’ British Journal of Sociology of Education 18:3 421-434. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/0142569970180307 (Accessed: 18 February 2022)

Darren Newbury of the Birmingham Institute of Art and Design describes how “despite the social and cultural importance of photography… photographic education is an area that has inspired very little in the way of academic research” and little seems to have change in the intervening years. Indeed, even the quintessential handbook for many photography courses Langford’s Basic Photography, the most recent 15th edition (2015), dedicates as much of its content to film photography and darkroom editing as it does to digital photography despite film camera manufacturing having being reduced to niche and specialist areas.

Oakey, S. (2022) ‘Get FREE professional prints with Fujifilm’s ‘Print to Prove It’ campaign’ Digital Camera World 15 March. Available at:https:// www.digitalcameraworld.com/uk/news/get-free-professional-prints-with-fujifilms-print- to-prove-it-campaign (Accessed: 30 April 2022)

Rand, G., Stevens, J., Horner, G. (2015) Teaching Photography: Tools for the Imaging Educator 2nd Edition New York: Routledge https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315734231

Teaching Photography (Rand et al, 2015) is a comprehensive piece of literature and works as an excellent starting place for the project. It explores in broad terms an approach to teaching photography from the philosophical aspects to the use of taxonomies in the design of curricula. However, there are elements that are outdated in teaching and photographic terms, for example the use of learning styles, which have been widely criticised (DfE, 2019 p20) and the technological aspects that have changed in the time since the book was published, both in photography and in teaching, such as the use of virtual learning environments.

I found that the book veered too far from the photographic and into more generalised teaching methods. In narrower terms however, Rand stresses the importance of subject specific knowledge. He identifies the difficulty in maintaining the “flow of knowledge” (p36) and that students ask questions to “clarify, impress, quarrel” (ibid) and without that subject knowledge it is difficult to to respond to those questions if teachers are only “two weeks ahead of the students” (p37).

Rubenstein, D., Golding, J., Fisher, A. (2013) On The Verge of Photography Birmingham: Article Press

Rubinstein, D. (2009) ‘Towards Photographic Education’ Photographies, Vol 2. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/ 233351426_Towards_Photographic_Education (Accessed: 03 May 2022).

Prolific writer on the philosophy of photography, Daniel Rubinsteins’s 2009 article Towards Photographic Education argues that photography education is attempting to “cling to the historical moment of photography” (Rubinstein, 2009, p135) and that it “fails to address contemporary conditions…because it perceives the digital turn in technological terms” (ibid).

The article discusses how Ansel Adams approach to teaching photography may not be appropriate in the digital age and how photography education needs to “become interdisciplinary” as Dimitrios Stamovlasis had described at the Interdisciplinary Theme for Science, Technology and Art Symposium in 2001 (Stamovlasis, 2001). In 2009 Rubeinstein was declaring that “the age of the still image is over” (Rubinstein, 2009, p140) and that “the notion of camera is rapidly becoming a thing of the past”, I would suggest over a decade later the still image and the camera are not dead yet and in my own

Smith, I.R., (2016) Education for Photography: Historical aspects and its Development in England 1839-2000 Wiltshire: Photolink

Sontag, S. (1979) On Photography London: Penguin

Stamovlasis, D. (2001) ‘Teaching Photography: An Interdisciplinary Theme for Science, Technology, and Art’ Science and Technology Education: Preparing Future Citizens Proceedings of the IOSTE Symposium in Southern Europe (1st, Paralimni, Cyprus, April 29-May 2, 2001). Volume I [and] Volume II

The National Committee of Inquiry into Higher Education (1997)The Dearing Report: Higher Eduaction in the Learning Society Main Report. London: HMSO

Tricot, A., Sweller, J. (2013) ‘Domain-Specific Knowledge and why Teaching Generic Skills does not Work’ Educational Psychology Review June. Available at: https:// journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1469787403004001005 (Accessed: 17 March 2022)

White, M. (1956) ‘A Unique Experience in Teaching Photography’ Aperture, Vol 4, No. 4. Available at: https://www.jstor.org/stable/44405154 (Accessed: 29 April 2022)

Wolf, A. (2011) Review of Vocational Education – The Wolf Report Available at: https:// assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/ government/uploads/system/uploads/ attachment_data/file/180504/DFE-00031-2011.pdf (Accessed 2 March 2022)